The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, Kaemmer, 1989) is a measure of psychology that is the most recent version of the original MMPI. The MMPI-2 is an objective test that consists of 567 true-false items and that was developed using empirical keying. It provides scores on several clinical scales and is one of the most widely used measures of personality and psychopathology (Compas Gotlb, 2002).
One of the major strengths of the MMPI-2 is the fact that it contains a set of validity scales. These validity scales are each made up of several specific questions spread throughout the test and are used to verify that the subject taking the test is answering the questions as truthfully as possible. If a subject decides to lie to look better or worse off than they really are, the validity scales are in place to catch them.
The validity scales consist of the L-scale, F-scale, and K-scale. The L-scale is designed to see if a subject is lying. Questions like, "I get angry sometimes,aE and, "Sometimes when I am not feeling well, I am irritable,aE are designed to detect whether the subject is attempting to avoid an