Alfred then extended his training when he attended Fontainebleau from 1880 until 1882, where he specialized as an artillery officer. On graduation, he claimed first division of the 32nd cavalry regiment and promoted to lieutenant in 1885. In 1889, Alfred, adjutant to the director of the pyrotechnical school in Bourges , became captain (M. Johnson 20).
On April 18, 1891, Alfred married Lucie Hadamard, (1870-1945) who would later bear his son Pierre, and daughter Jeanne. A mere three days later, he received notice that he had been admitted to the Superior War College. Two years later, Alfred graduated ninth in his class with honorable mention, and immediately designated as a trainee at army headquarters where he remained as the only Jew.
The Dreyfus case highlighted and intensified bitter divisions within French politics and society. By the end of the 1890's, the republican regime had successfully weathered several storms, only to face its most serious challenge yet when the Dreyfus Affair broke. The fact that the case followed other scandals: The Boulanger affair , the Wilson case, and the bribery of government officials and journalists a