They were extensively used throughout the Middle East and Northern Africa (McDonald, 1998). In the city of Aleppo, Syria, drinking water still comes from a qanaat, that brings water from a spring over seven miles away (Grolier, 1993).

One of the earliest known aqueducts built above ground was the aqueduct of Jerwan. King Sennacherib of Assyria started construction on this aqueduct in 691 BC. This huge aqueduct carried water from the Greater Zab River to the king's fields and garden in Nineveh, which was over fifty miles away. A 30 foot high arched bridge was needed to support this aqueduct as it passed over a valley (Grolier, 1993).

Another amazing aqueduct was built on the island of Samos in around 530 BC. Designed by the Greek engineer Eupalinus, the Samos structure ran mostly underground. The tunnel was approximately 1 mile long and almost eight feet in diameter. The water flowed through clay pipes that were laid inside the tunnel (Grolier, 1993).

"The most famous aqueduct builders of ancient times were the Romans" (McDonald, 1998). Roman engineers built the main part of their aqueduct system at or below ground level. The water was carried through free flowing conduits. When the aque



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