Aristotle vs. Thomas Aquinas

In astronomy, Aristotle proposed a finite, spherical universe, with the earth at its center. The center is made up of four elements: earth, air, fire, and water. In Aristotle's physics, all of these four elements has a right place, determined by its relative heaviness, its "specific gravity." Each moves naturally in a straight line. Earth goes down, fire up toward its proper place, where it will be at rest. So Earth's motion is always in a line and always comes to a halt. The heavens, though, move "naturally and endlessly in a complex circular motion". Another belief Aristotle holds is that although our actions are the results of our learning, virtue still involves rational choice. He is saying that if we have not been taught what is the moral excellence (the "midpointaE of the two vices), of a particular action or behavior, we still have the ability to attain excellence through choice. Another belief that Aristotle held was the ultimate goal was happiness. Happiness, function, morality and virtue can exist independent of one another. The first deliberation is to define happiness. Happiness is the highest of



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