The second theory is cultural transmission. It is "a school of criminology that argues that criminal behavior is learned through social interactionsaE (Schaefer, 2003, p. 208). "Such learning includes not only techniques of lawbreaking but also the motives, drives, and rationalization of criminals. We can also use the cultural transmission approach to explain why the behavior of those who habitually use alcohol or drugsaE (p. 194).

"Sutherland maintained that through interactions with a primary group and significant others, people acquire definitions of proper and improper behavioraE (Schaefer, 2003, p. 194). The third theory is differential association. It is defined as "a theory of deviance proposed by Edwin Sutherland that holds that violation of rules results from exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal actsaE (p. 208). "Research suggests that this view also applies to such noncriminal deviant acts as smoking, truancy, and early sexual behavioraE (p. 194).

My interpretation of the cultural transmission theory and the differential association theory is that they go hand-in-hand with one another. The cultural transmission theory involves learning t



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